There are basically three type of approaches to mitigate and integrate the aftermath of psychological trauma. Integration is a necessary process so that the split-off parts within us does not interfere with our daily life. It allows a person to feel whole again whilst keeping memory intact. Here are the three type of approaches:
1. Bottom-up approach:
All body-based therapy harnesses the body intelligence to bring calmness to the mind. One example is the Trauma Centre Trauma-Sensitive Yoga (TCTSY). It is an evidence-based yoga model specially developed as adjunctive treatment for trauma survivors by Trauma Centre, Brookline and Justice Resource Institute USA. Another example is Somatic Experiencing (SE), a body-oriented type of psychotherapy developed by Dr Peter A. Levine. SE has garnered a worldwide following of psychotherapeutic professionals and is recognized by experts in the psychotherapy field.
2. Top-down approach:
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is a classic example that utilizes top-down approach. It focuses on engaging trauma survivors at the mind level to confront thinking processes that hinder effective living in the present. Using mental recollection and behavioural experiment, it exposes obsolete and unhelpful beliefs and encourages trauma survivors into new adaptation of behaviour and thinking.
Psychodynamic Psychotherapy, whose predecessor is Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy, is deeply grounded in robust theories of mind such as Attachment theories developed by John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth, Freud's theory, Object Relation theory by Melanie Klein, and notable works of Wilfred Bion, Donald Winncott etc. Equipped with knowledge on psychological development and emotional insight, Psychodynamic therapists nurture sense of self in their patients and help them to develop a healthier, more functional relationship within self and towards others.
3. Pharmacological approach and other adjunctive treatments:
Some drugs can help to lift mood, mitigate the effect of psychological trauma. Always consult a psychiatrist on proper use of drugs.
Other adjunctive treatments that are well known to treat psychological trauma are Eye Movement De-sensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), Neurofeedback (which is a subset of biofeedback), Hypnosis, and Psychodrama.